This ECELA Toolkit is specifically designed for the use of ECELA district coaches and teachers to utilize as a guide to important information pertaining to one's role and responsibilities during Year 3 of the ECELA Project. Below includes: Coach/Teacher Deliverables, Dance Connections to EL Strategies in Modules, Integrated Arts & ELD Lesson Planning, Instructional Videos, Coaching Support, and tools/resources to support each of you at your district and/or site.
professional learning tools and resources on ELD, Arts Integration, Social Emotional Learning they can be found in the ECELA Open Educational Resources (OER).
According to the California Arts Standards, space refers to the components of dance involving direction, pathways, facings, levels, shapes, and design; the location where a dance takes place; or the element of dance referring to the cubic area of a room, on a stage, or in other environments.
Space as an element of dance, refers to the immediate area surrounding the body in all directions, or the physical location of a performed dance. The use of space by the choreographer and dancer includes a variety of components that may include pathway, size, shape, level, direction, relationships, focus and place.
A dancer engages space as an element of dance through their body by changing body shapes, the direction and size of movement, the pathways traveled, and the levels in which the body moves in space. Kentucky Educational Television (KET) provides an introduction to the element of space. Click HERE to watch the video.
Energy refers to the force, dynamics, and motivational qualities of a dance. You may see this element of dance referred to as force/energy or dynamics. The California Dance Content Standards use the term "force/energy". For simplicity, in the text of this module we will use the term Energy.
This element is characterized by the release of potential energy (stored energy as when a dancer is still) into kinetic energy (the dancer is moving). In dance, energy refers to the dancer's body as they move through space - leaping, twisting, and landing, providing a quality, emotion, or dynamic for the audience to experience. Some of the most recognized qualities of movement (i.e. ways in which to release energy) are sustained, percussive, suspended, and swinging.
Time is an element of dance involving rhythm, phrasing, pattern, tempo, accent, and duration. Time can be measured by counting physical movements. Time can also be measured on human body rhythms, such as breath and heartbeat.
The choreographer of a dance and the dancers create patterns by manipulating the timing of body movements, giving variety to the dance and placing emphasis on specific parts. These patterns of movements based on timing give the dance interest and a sense of continuity and completion.
Click HERE to watch a demonstration of time as it is used in dance. As you watch, think about how the concept of time in dance extends beyond our everyday use of the term.
This video from Kentucky Educational Television (KET) PBS Learning Media, introduces the element of time:
Watch Paul Taylor’s Esplanade video and look for examples of time and its attributes of rhythm, tempo, accent, duration and pattern.
After your discussion, have students clap on a beat (you can do this with or without music.) Using counts of eight, first have the students count out loud with you. Next, they can just clap on the beat while you count. Eventually, drop the counting and you can just clap on the beat.
From clapping to find the beat, you can expand to moving on this beat. Using either locomotor (movements that travel) or axial movements (movement that stays in one place), guide a simple movement that students can do while you clap the beat for them. As students excel, you can make changes to the beat to create a more complicated rhythm and have students add more elaborate movements to follow/stay on the rhythm.
As in the previous lesson, a note-taking guide is provided here. It provides all students with a way to focus their observations, holding individual students accountable for viewing actively (ELD Standards Part I), while at the same time, offering scaffolds for students to gain a deeper understanding of the technical dance vocabulary that is the focus of this lesson. After students have completed all or portions of the note-taking guide, they can then share their guides with other students to enhance and clarify their own understandings and simultaneously, have an structured opportunity for oral academic language practice.
When sharing out, English Learners might better use academic language if they are provided with some basic sentence frames, such as these:
All dance movements fall into one of two categories: axial or locomotor. The dancer moves with the element of dance called ACTION. These can be movements that stay in place (axial) or movements that travel (locomotor).
Axial movements are movements taking place around the axis of a dancer’s body. Axial movements are also referred to as non-locomotor movements. The latter term is used to clarify the fact that some movements transfer a dancer from one place to another, but axial or non-locomotor movements have little to no movement of the body's base of support. As an example, think about twisting your body around an imaginary "axis" that runs from your head to your feet, while keeping your feet planted in one spot. That is non-locomotor. Other examples of axial and non-locomotor movements include bending, stretching, reaching, twisting, turning, and gesturing.
In this module, the term axial will be used for simplicity.
Locomotor movements are characterized by the dancer traveling from one location to another. Examples include: walking, running, hopping, leaping, galloping, sliding, jumping, and skipping.
To engage in, create, or read dance requires the ability to use, do, and identify axial and locomotor movements. By combining axial with locomotor movements, both novice and professional dancers and choreographers communicate with the audience and make dances more interesting to watch.
The strategy used after each video in this lesson, where a video is viewed more than one time with each viewing having a different focus, is called "Viewing Closely," and is addressed in the ELD Standards, Part I, Standard 6: Reading closely literary and informational texts and viewing multimedia to determine how meaning is conveyed explicitly and implicitly through language. Just as a rich text deserves to be read more than once, so does a rich or compelling dance. The first viewing serves to draw the viewer into the dance, allowing them to savor it without any outside commentary influencing the impact it might have on them. Subsequent viewings each have a different focus, drawing the viewer deeper into the dance and helping them discover aspects of the dance that make it effective.